1536: Anne Boleyn, second wife of England’s King Henry VIII, is beheaded.
1585: English shipping in Spanish ports is confiscated, serving as declaration of war.
1588: The Spanish Armada sets sail for England, where it is soundly defeated the following August.
1635: In the Thirty Years War, France declares war on Spain.
1643: The French, under the Duke of Enghien, heavily defeats the Spanish at the battle of Rocroi, destroying the Spanish infantry.
1649: England is declared a commonwealth.
1792: Russia invades Poland.
1802: Napoleon Bonaparte’s Order of Legion of Honour is created in France – an order of distinction for civil or military service.
1839: First Roman Catholic mass is conducted in Melbourne in a roofless store in Elizabeth Street, by the Rev Father Patrick Geoghegan.
1849: Irishman William Hamilton is arrested after firing blank shots at Queen Victoria in London.
1897: Armistice is signed in Greece-Turkey War.
1898: William Gladstone, four-time British prime minister, dies.
1900: Britain annexes Tongan Islands in South Pacific.
1906: Simplon Tunnel through the Alps between Italy and Switzerland is officially opened by the King of Italy and the president of the Swiss Republic.
1915: John Simpson Kirkpatrick, the stretcher bearer who with donkey Duffy saved many Australian lives at Gallipoli, is killed by a sniper’s bullet; Turkish counter-attack on Gallipoli fails with 10,000 killed or wounded in the biggest disaster of the Turks’ campaign.
1924: Aviators Stanley Globre and Ivor McIntyre complete first round-Australia flight, taking 93 hours.
1935: TE Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia, dies in England from injuries after a motorcycle crash.
1943: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill tells US Congress that America has Britain’s full support in war against Japan.
1945: More than 40 US super fortress bombers attack Tokyo in World War II.
1967: The Soviet Union ratifies a treaty with the US and Britain banning nuclear weapons from outer space.
1973: Soviet Union and West Germany sign 10-year agreement calling for economic, industrial and technical co-operation.
1981: Five British soldiers are killed in ambush by Irish Republican Army men in Newry, Northern Ireland.
1986: South African soldiers attack alleged African National Congress targets in capitals of three neighbouring black-ruled countries: Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia.
1992: Two doctors who performed an autopsy on John F Kennedy confirm the president died from two bullets fired from above and behind.
1993: Colombian jetliner crashes near Medellin, killing 132.
1994: Former US first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis dies.
1997: More than 350 people are killed when a cyclone sweeps coastal Bangladesh.
1998: Indonesian students storm the parliament in Jakarta, demanding President Suharto’s resignation; Bandits steal three of Rome’s most important paintings, two by van Gogh and one by Cezanne, from the National Gallery of Modern Art.
1999: Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic accepts “principles” of a Kosovo peace plan while NATO jets bomb Belgrade suburbs.
2000: Masked men storm Fiji’s parliament and seize the island’s prime minister, his Cabinet ministers and politicians of the ruling coalition in a coup, claiming the government discriminated against ethnic Fijians.
2002: John Gorton, former Australian prime minister, dies.
2003: Indonesia’s military launches a big offensive on rebel bases in Aceh a day after peace talks fail.
2004: The world’s first embryonic stem cell bank opens in Britain.
2005: Egyptian authorities arrest 75 members of the Muslim Brotherhood and extend the detention of four leaders jailed earlier in a government crackdown.
2006: The UN anti-torture watchdog calls for the closure of the prison at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.
2008: Disgraced music entrepreneur Glenn Wheatley is released from a Victorian prison after serving 10 months of a minimum 15-month jail term for tax evasion.
2016: EgyptAir Flight MS804 crashes into the Mediterranean Sea while flying from Paris to Cairo. All 66 people on board the Airbus 320 are killed.
2018: Prince Harry marries Meghan Markle in a star-studded ceremony at Windsor Castle. The couple then step out of the chapel and kiss in front of an adoring crowd.
2019: Labor frontbencher Anthony Albanese announces he will contest the party’s leadership following Bill Shorten’s resignation.
Dame Nellie Melba, Australian opera singer (1861-1931); Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey (1881-1938); King Faisal I, first king of independent Iraq (1883-1933); Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese communist leader, (1890-1969); Malcolm X, militant US civil rights leader (1925-1965); Pol Pot, Cambodian dictator (1925-1998); James Fox, British actor (1939); Nora Ephron, US director and screenwriter (1941-2012); Carla Zampatti, Australian fashion designer (1942); Pete Townshend, British rock singer-composer (1945); Phil Rudd, Australian drummer for band AC/DC (1954); James Reyne, Australian musician (1957); Jodi Picoult, American writer (1966); Jenny Berggren, Swedish rock singer-Ace of Base (1972); Andrew Johns, Australian rugby league player (1974).
THOUGHT FOR TODAY:
“Forgiveness is the fragrance the violet sheds on the heel that has crushed it” – Mark Twain (1835-1910).